Cerebral autoregulation in hypertensive patients: A review

Michel Ferreira Machado, Henrique Cotchi Simbo Muela, Valeria Aparecida Costa-Hong, Monica Sanches Yassuda, Natalia Cristina Moraes, Claudia Maia Memoria, Edson Bor-Seng-Shu, Ayrton Roberto Massaro, Ricardo Nitrini, Luiz Aparecido Bortolotto, Ricardo de Carvalho Nogueira

Cerebral Autoregulation (AR) consists of a complex mechanism characterized by the ability of the brain microcirculation to contract and dilate in response to variations in Blood Pressure (BP), aiming at maintaining a constant Cerebral Blood Flow (CBF). Vascular changes induced by Systemic Arterial Hypertension (SAH), such as thickening of the smooth muscle layer and intimal proliferation, result in reduced luminal diameter and increased cerebrovascular resistance (CVR). Here, the mechanisms of AR and the repercussions of these histological changes on the microcirculatory capacity to maintain constant CBF in these patients will be reviewed. The material for this review was taken mostly from electronic journals. To collect publications, PubMed e Cochrane database of systematic reviews were used.