Exploration of micro- and macronutrient consumption and leverage of interaction with adipokines among Jordanian adults

Reema F Tayyem*, Nawal S Hijjawi, Hiba A Bawadi, Nisreen A Nimer, Lana M Agraib, Sabika S Allehdan, Shatha Hammad & Ali M Al-Radaideh

Background and Aim: Findings related to nutrient intakes and levels of adipokines concentrations are inconclusive. The present study aimed at investigating the association between intakes of macro- and micro-nutrients with serum adipokines in apparently healthy adults. Methods and Results: A convenient sample of 167 adults was obtained from students and employees in major hospital in Jordan. Serum concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, resistin and interleukine-6 were measured. Nutrients intakes were assessed using a validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Higher levels of leptin were associated with the highest consumption of energy from carbohydrate, insoluble, and soluble fiber (P=0.04). Lower levels of leptin were associated with highest consumption of energy from fat (P=0.04), monounsaturated fatty acids (P=0.04) and cholesterol (P=0.02). Lower levels of adiponectin were found among individuals with the highest consumption of carbohydrates (p=0.02) insoluble fibers (P=0.01); and copper (P=0.03). Higher levels of adiponectin were associated with higher consumption of cholesterol (P=0.03). Leptin/adiponectin ratio was positively associated with the intakes of carbohydrates (P=0.04), soluble- (P=0.01) and insoluble fibers (P=0.01) and copper (P=0.03), whereas the ratio was negatively associated with cholesterol (P=0.04), butyric acid (P=0.03) and omega-3 fatty acids (P=0.03). Levels of resistin were only associated with total fiber intake (P=0.04) and levels of interleukine-6 were only associated with cholesterol intake (P=0.01). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that intakes of carbohydrates, fat, cholesterol and fibers are the major dietary factors that may be associated with levels of leptin and adiponectin. Levels of resistin and interleukine-6 may be less associated with diet composition.